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Jose Fernando Maya-Vetencourt Write a Message



NSYN@Unige Genova


Centro Biotecnologia Avanzata (CBA), Largo Rosanna Benzi, 10, Torre D1
Tel. +39 010 5558382


Dr. José Fernando Maya-Vetencourt obtained his Bachellor degree in Biology at the University of the Andes in Merida. Later on he got a MSc degree on Biochemistry and Cellular Biology, in the context of an international research project, at the Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris. Afterwards, he earned a PhD degree and a Post Doc in Neurobiology at the Scuola Normale Superiore of Pisa while working with Lamberto Maffei. He then moved to the Italian Institute of Technology (IIT), as a Post Doc, in Rovereto. At the moment, he is a Research Scientist at the IIT in Genova working with Fabio Benfenati. In addition to his research activities at the IIT, he was recently appointed as Adjunct Professor in the School of Medicine and Pharmacy, at the University of Genova. He also lately obtained the “Abilitazione Scientifica” to work as Associate Professor at the University. His research interests centre on (i) neuronal interfaces designed to substitute damaged tissues in the nervous system and (ii) experience-dependent mechanisms of neuronal plasticity that underlie sensory perception and behaviour. Dr. Maya-Vetencourt is author of 4 book chapters, 1 patent, 26 publications in peer-reviewed journals, including: Science, Nature Neuroscience, Nature Materials, Nature Communications, Journal of Physiology. He has delivered more than 20 scientific presentations at international meetings abroad. His academic record includes over 1325 citations with an “h-index” of 12 (google scholar). He is member of the Italian Society of Neuroscience (SINS), the American Society of Neuroscience (SfN), and the Italian Society of Physiology (SIF). He works as an associate review editor for “Frontiers in Neurogenomics” and “Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience”. In the year 2017, he was awarded two scientific recognitions as "Young Investigator in Physiology": one by the Italian Society of Physiology (SIF) in Pavia and the other by the European Society of Physiology (FEPS) in Vienna.  


(i) Application of photoelectronic interfaces as neuronal prostheses in retinal degenerative diseases and (ii) Experience-dependent mechanisms of neuronal plasticity that underlie sensory perception and behaviour.


J.F. Maya-Vetencourt is currently leading the following research projects:

Project 1: Artificial Retina in the RCS retinal degeneration rat model: functional and behavioral recovery of vision in Retinitis pigmentosa

Project 2: Development of an artificial retinal prosthesis in a swine model of blindness: towards the human phase-1 experimentation

Project 3: Role of the transcription factor REST on brain plasticity in health and disease as assessed by optogenetics


Summary of Research Projects

Utilization of neuronal interfaces in retinal pathologies

Recently, in the department of Synaptic Neuroscience and Technology led by Prof. Benfenati at the IIT, Dr Maya-Vetencourt started to work on an innovative line of research that centres on the development and use of optoelectronic interfaces as a therapeutic approach to retinal pathologies. He had the opportunity to build an in vivo electrophysiology laboratory to study the application of the aforementioned photovoltaic interfaces as neuronal prosthesis in retinal degenerative diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa in rodents and pigs. The purpose of the artificial retina project is to promote the development of new therapeutic strategies using animal models of genetic illnesses of the human retina. This translational line of research is clinically relevant in retinal diseases with an incidence of 1 every 4000 people worldwide for which there is currently no medical treatment.

Mechanisms of neuronal plasticity in the visual system

During the course of his doctoral program, at the Scuola Normale Superiore, Dr. Maya-Vetencourt, within the group guided by Prof. Maffei, was among the first to pioneer different experimental approaches aimed at reactivating plasticity in the adult visual system and promoting the recovery of visual functions in adult amblyopic animals. In addition, they studied epigenetic mechanisms that regulate the susceptibility of chromatin to transcription, which is at the basis of the restoration of plasticity in the adult nervous system. The application of these findings is of relevance for the treatment of human amblyopia and currently under clinical study. Thanks to the financial support from the Compagnia di Sao Paulo (180.000 euros), Dr. Maya-Vetencourt is currently investigating the role of the transcription factor REST in processes of cortical plasticity. This project involves the use of optogenetics and electrophysiology techniques in vivo.


Research Grants as Principal Investigator:

Fondazione San Paolo. 180.000 €. 2016-2018.

“Modulation of adult visual cortical plasticity via optogenetic control of gene expression”


Selected Publications


1.  Mattia Bramini, Fabrizia Cesca, Elisabetta Colombo, Mattia Lorenzo Di Francesco, José Fernando Maya-Vetencourt, Giulio Alberini, Luca Maragliano, Fabio Benfenati. 2017. Interfacing graphene-based materials with neural cells (in preparation)

2. Stéphane Molotchnikoff, Vishal Bharmauria, Nayan Chanauria, Lyes Bachatene, José Fernando Maya-Vetencourt. 2017. The function of connectomes in encoding sensory stimuli (in preparation)

3. Cyril Eleftheriou, Fabrizia Cesca, Fabio Benfenati, José Fernando Maya-Vetencourt. 2017. Dissecting the role of the transcription factor REST/NRSF on brain plasticity (in preparation)

4. Francesca Barone, Eleonora Nannoni, Alberto Elmi, Domenico Ventrella, Marika Vitali, Giovanna Martelli, José Fernando Maya-Vetencourt, Fabio Benfenati, Maria Laura Bacci. 2017. Behavioral vision assessment in the biomedical pig. Laboratory Animals (submitted)

5. Cyril Eleftheriou, Fabrizia Cesca, Luca Maragliano, Fabio Benfenati, José Fernando Maya-Vetencourt (corresponding author). 2017. Optogenetic modulation of intracellular signalling and transcription: focus on neuronal plasticity. Journal of Experimental Neuroscience 11: 1-16.

6. José Fernando Maya-Vetencourt, Diego Ghezzi, Maria Rosa Antognazza, Maurizio Mete, Paul Feyen, Andrea Desii, Ambra Buschiazzo, Mattia Di Paolo, Stefano Di Marco, Flavia Ticconi, Laura Emionite, Dmytro Shmal, Cecilia Marini, Elisabetta Colombo, Ilaria Donelli, Giuliano Freddi, Silvia Bisti, Gianmario Sambuceti, Grazia Pertile, Guglielmo Lanzani, Fabio Benfenati. 2017. A fully organic retinal prosthesis restores vision in a rat model of degenerative blindness. Nature Materials 16(6): 681-689.

7. Maria Rosa Antognazza, Mattia Di Paolo, Diego Ghezzi, Maurizio Mete, Stefano Di Marco, José Fernando Maya-Vetencourt, Rita Maccarone, Andrea Desii, Fabio Di Fonzo, Mattia Bramini, Angela Russo, Lucia Laudato, Ilaria Donelli, Michele Cilli, Giuliano Freddi, Grazia Pertile, Guglielmo Lanzani, Silvia Bisti, Fabio Benfenati . 2016. Characterization of a polymer-based, fully organic prosthesis for implantation into the subretinal space of the rat. Advanced Healthcare Materials 5(17): 2271-2282.

8. José Fernando Maya-Vetencourt, Nicola Carucci, Simona Capsoni, Antonino Cattaneo. 2014. Amyloid plaque-independent deficit of visual cortical plasticity by Ab-aggregation in the 5XFAD transgenic model of Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease 42(1): 103–107

9. José Fernando Maya-Vetencourt (corresponding author) and Tommaso Pizzorusso. 2013. Molecular mechanisms at the basis of plasticity in the developing visual cortex: epigenetic processes and gene programs. Journal of Experimental Neuroscience 7: 75–83

10.  José Fernando Maya-Vetencourt (corresponding author). 2013. Activity dependent expression of NPAS4 and the regulation of gene programs underlying plasticity in the central nervous system. Neural Plasticity 2013: 683909

11.  José Fernando Maya-Vetencourt (corresponding author) & Matteo Caleo. 2013. Experience-dependent plasticity in the central nervous system. In Neurosciences. Eds: P.M. Lledo and G. Galizia. Springer Verlag Press, Amsterdam.

12.  Ettore Tiraboschi, Ramon Guirado, Dario Greco, Petri Auvinen, José Fernando Maya-Vetencourt, Lamberto Maffei, Eero Castren. 2013. Gene expression patterns underlying the reinstatement of plasticity in the adult visual system. Neural Plasticity 2013: 605079

13.  José Fernando Maya-Vetencourt (corresponding author), Ettore Tiraboschi, Dario Greco, Laura Restani, Chiara Cerri, Petri Auvinen, Lamberto Maffei, Eero Castren. 2012. Experience-dependent NPAS4 expression regulates plasticity in adult visual cortex. Journal of Physiology 590(19): 4777-4787

14.  José Fernando Maya-Vetencourt (corresponding author) and Nicola Origlia. 2012.  Visual cortex plasticity: a complex interplay of genetic and environmental influences. Neural Plasticity 2012: 631965

15.  José Fernando Maya-Vetencourt (corresponding author), Laura Baroncelli, Alessandro Viegi, Ettore Tiraboschi, Eero Castren, Antonino Cattaneo, Lamberto Maffei. 2012. IGF-1 restores visual cortex plasticity in adult life by reducing local GABA levels. Neural Plasticity 2012: 250421

16.  José Fernando Maya-Vetencourt. 2012. Plasticity of visual cortical circuitries in adulthood. In Visual Cortex: Anatomy, Functions and Injuries. Eds: J.M. Harris and J. Scott. Nova Science Publishers, New York.

17.  José Fernando Maya-Vetencourt & Matteo Caleo, 2012. Insights into visual cortex plasticity: interaction of genes and sensory experience. In Visual Cortex. Eds: S. Molotchnikoff. InTech Publishers, New York.

18.  Maria Spolidoro, Laura Baroncelli, Elena Putignano, José Fernando Maya-Vetencourt, Alessandro Viegi, Lamberto Maffei. 2011. Food restriction enhances visual cortex plasticity in adulthood. Nature Communications 2: 320

19.  José Fernando Maya-Vetencourt (corresponding author), Ettore Tiraboschi, Maria Spolidoro, Eero Castren, Lamberto Maffei. 2011. Serotonin triggers a transient epigenetic mechanism that reinstates adult visual cortex plasticity in rats. European Journal of Neuroscience 33(1): 49-57

20.  Eero Castren & José Fernando Maya-Vetencourt. 2011. Neurotrophins as regulators of visual cortical plasticity. In Cerebral Plasticity. Eds: L.M. Chalupa, N. Berardi, M. Caleo, L. Galli-Resta, T. Pizzorusso. MIT Press, Cambridge.

21.  Laura Baroncelli, Alessandro Sale, Alessandro Viegi, José Fernando Maya-Vetencourt, Roberto De Pasquale, Sara Baldini, Lamberto Maffei. 2010. Experience-dependent reactivation of ocular dominance plasticity in the adult visual cortex. Experimental Neurology 226(1): 100-109

22.  Flavia Antonucci, Chiara Cerri, José Fernando Maya-Vetencourt, Matteo Caleo. 2010. Acute neuroprotection by the synaptic blocker botulinum neurotoxin e (BoNT-E) in a rat model of focal cerebral ischaemia. Neuroscience 169: 395-401

23.  José Fernando Maya-Vetencourt (corresponding author), Matteo Caleo, Lamberto Maffei. 2009. Frontiers of neuronal plasticity: can we treat amblyopia in adulthood? Ophthalmology International Review 4: 45-50 

24.  José Fernando Maya-Vetencourt (corresponding author), Alessandro Sale, Alessandro Viegi, Laura Baroncelli, Roberto De Pasquale, Olivia O’Leary, Eero Castrén, Lamberto Maffei. 2008. The antidepressant fluoxetine restores plasticity in the adult visual cortex. Science 320(5874): 385-388

25.  Alessandro Sale, José Fernando Maya-Vetencourt (1st coauthor), Paolo Medini, Maria Cristina Cenni, Laura Baroncelli, Roberto De Pasquale, Lamberto Maffei. 2007. Environmental enrichment in adulthood promotes amblyopia recovery through a reduction of intracortical inhibition. Nature Neuroscience 10(6): 679-681

26.  Zamora E., Valiente E., Aldana E., Lizano E., José Fernando Maya-Vetencourt. 2005.  Estudio ontogénico de la variación de la simetría geométrica en las córneas de los omatidios del ojo compuesto de Rhodnius prolixus utilizando Microscopía Electrónica de barrido (MEB). Salud & Desarrollo Social  1: 1-7

  José Fernando Maya-Vetencourt (corresponding author), Valiente E., Zamora E., O'Callaghan J. 2004.  Bioformation of polygons in the chorion of Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758) eggs. Rev. Ecol. Lat. Am.  11(2): 1-6

28.  José Fernando Maya-Vetencourt (corresponding author), Valiente E, O’Callaghan J. 2002. Study of ultrastructural details of the ootheca of Periplaneta americana (Dyctioptera:Blattidae)with scanning electron microscopy. Interciencia  27(5): 243-246

29.  José Fernando Maya-Vetencourt (corresponding author), Valiente E., O’Callaghan J. 2000. Ultrastructural study of the crest in the ootheca of Periplaneta americana using a Scanning Electron Microscope. Rev. Ecol. Lat. Am.  7 (1-2): 11-16



1.  Eero Castrén, Lamberto Maffei, José Fernando Maya-Vetencourt. A method of treating amblyopia. 2008. International publication number: WO 2009/004114 A1. Finland. Hermo Pharma Ltd (VAT FI21986657).


•   Neuroscience Institute, CNR. Pisa, Italy. June 2017. Commanding neuronal activity with light: from photovoltaic interfaces to neuronal prosthesis.

•   Conference on Materials Science and Technology. Sicily, Italy. December, 2016. A polymer-based interface modulates neuronal activity and restores light-sensitivity in blind rats.

•   4th Congress on Neurotechnology, Electronics & Informatics. Porto, Portugal. November, 2016. A fully organic retinal prosthesis restores vision in a rat model of degenerative blindness.

•   Erice International School of Bioelectromagnetics. Sicily, Italy. April, 2016. Optogenetics: a new tool to interrogate and modulate neural circuitries in the brain.

•   OLIMPIA Workshop. Milan, Italy. April, 2016. Organic artificial retina: latest results and future perspectives.

•   XVI International Congress. SINS. Cagliari, Italy. October, 2015. Commanding neuronal activity with light: from photovoltaic interfaces to neuronal prosthesis.

•   66th International Congress. SIF. Genoa, Italy. September 2015. Commanding neuronal activity with light: from photovoltaic interfaces to neuronal prosthesis.

•   Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Rovereto, Italy. November 2012. Optogenetics-fMRI: optogenetic and functional mapping of neural substrates of plasticity in the nervous system.

•   Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. June 2012. Adult Visual Cortical Plasticity: a complex interplay between genes and environmental experience.

•   Istituto Farmacologia Traslazionale, CNR. Cagliari, Italy. September 2011. Adult Visual Cortical Plasticity: a dialogue between genes and environment.

•   Collège de France. Paris, France. October 2010. Adult Visual Cortical Plasticity: a dialogue between genes and environment.

•   Neuroscience Meeting. Helsinki, Finland. June 2010. Neurotrophic Factors in Health and Disease. University of Helsinki.

•   Institute Pasteur. Paris, France. November 2009. Frontiers of Neuronal Plasticity. Epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression: temporal kinetics.

•   Neuroscience Meeting. Pisa, Italy. October 2008. Cerebral Plasticity: New Perspectives. Scuola Normale Superiore.


•   Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine. Imaging of basal metabolic activity of primary visual cortex in mice. Vienna, Austria. October 2017.

•   3rd WP5 Biomedical Technologies Meeting. Improvement of Photosensitive Neural Interfaces with Graphene for Novel Retinal Prosthesis Design. Barcelona, Spain. March 2017.

•   Graphene Flagship Meeting. WP4-WP5 Core-1. Photosensitive Neuronal Interfaces for Biomedical Applications. Madrid, Spain. October 2016.

•   European Neuroscience Congress (FENS). Smart materials for Biomedical Applications. Copehagen, Denmark. July 2016.

•   FELASA Congress. Objective and subjective vision assessment in iodoacetic acid model of swine retinal degeneration. Brussels, Belgium. June 2016.

•   International workshop. Engrams and Memory Traces. European Brain Research Institute (EBRI). Accademia dei Lincei. Rome, Italy. April 2014.

•   Optogenetics Worshop. Optogenetic Innovation Laboratory of Prof. Karl Deisseroth, Stanford University. Stanford, USA. February 2014.

•   Optogenetics and Pharmacogenetics in Neuronal Function and Dysfunction. 7th International Brain Research Conference. New Orleans, USA. October 2012.

•   Society for Neuroscience 42nd  Annual Meeting. New Orleans, USA. October 2012.

•   IBRO Summer School. Development and Plasticity of Cortical Representation. Bertinoro. Bologna, Italy. June 2011.

•   Society for Neuroscience SfN Meeting. Gene expression analysis of fluoxetine-induced plasticity in the adult visual cortex. San Diego. California, USA. Nov 2010.

•   European Neuroscience Meeting. Organization and plasticity of the visual cortex. Scuola Normale Superiore. Pisa, Italy. May 2009.

•   European Neuroscience Congress (FENS). Chronic fluoxetine administration restores plasticity in the adult visual cortex. Geneve, Switzerland. July 2008.

•   International Neuroscience Meeting. Advances Techniques in Molecular Neuroscience. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. New York, USA. June 2008

•   Gordon Research Conference. Inhibition in the CNS. Fluoxetine-induced plasticity in the adult visual cortex.  Colby College. Boston, USA. July 2007.

•   International Neuroscience Meeting. V Incontro dell’istituto di Neuroscienze del CNR. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR). Cagliari, Italy. June 2007.

•   International Neuroscience Meeting. The GABAergic inhibition. Environmental enrichment in adulthood promotes amblyopia recovery through a reduction of intracortical inhibition.

    Cold SpringHarbor Laboratory. New York, USA. November 2006.

•   International Neuroscience Meeting. Neuroplasticity, Neurotrophic Factors and Mood Disorders. Consiglio Nazionale della Ricerca (CNR). Pisa, Italy. April 2005.



•  Young Investigator Award. 2017. Società Italiana di Fisiologia (SIF). Pavia, Italia.

•  Raising Star Award. 2017. Federation of European Physiological Societies (FEPS). Vienna, Austria.

•  Award for Major Scientific Advances in Biology. 2008. Faculty of 1000 Biology. Maya-Vetencourt et al. Science 320(5874): 385-388.




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L’Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT) è una fondazione di diritto privato - cfr. determinazione Corte dei Conti 23/2015 “IIT è una fondazione da inquadrare fra gli organismi di diritto pubblico con la scelta di un modello di organizzazione di diritto privato per rispondere all’esigenza di assicurare procedure più snelle nella selezione non solo nell’ambito nazionale dei collaboratori, scienziati e ricercatori ”.

IIT è sotto la vigilanza del Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca e del Ministero dell'Economia e delle Finanze ed è stato istituito con la Legge 326/2003. La Fondazione ha l'obiettivo di promuovere l'eccellenza nella ricerca di base e in quella applicata e di favorire lo sviluppo del sistema economico nazionale. La costruzione dei laboratori iniziata nel 2006 si è conclusa nel 2009.

Lo staff complessivo di IIT conta circa 1440 persone. L’area scientifica è rappresentata da circa l’85% del personale. Il 45% dei ricercatori proviene dall’estero: di questi, il 29% è costituito da stranieri provenienti da oltre 50 Paesi e il 16% da italiani rientrati. Oggi il personale scientifico è composto da circa 60 principal investigators, circa 110 ricercatori e tecnologi di staff, circa 350 post doc, circa 500 studenti di dottorato e borsisti, circa 130 tecnici. Oltre 330 posti su 1400 creati su fondi esterni. Età media 34 anni. 41% donne / 59 % uomini.

Nel 2015 IIT ha ricevuto finanziamenti pubblici per circa 96 milioni di euro (80% del budget), conseguendo fondi esterni per 22 milioni di euro (20% budget) provenienti da 18 progetti europei17 finanziamenti da istituzioni nazionali e internazionali, circa 60 progetti industriali

La produzione di IIT ad oggi vanta circa 6990 pubblicazioni, oltre 130 finanziamenti Europei e 11 ERC, più di 350 domande di brevetto attive, oltre 12 start up costituite e altrettante in fase di lancio. Dal 2009 l’attività scientifica è stata ulteriormente rafforzata con la creazione di dieci centri di ricerca nel territorio nazionale (a Torino, Milano, Trento, Parma, Roma, Pisa, Napoli, Lecce, Ferrara) e internazionale (MIT ed Harvard negli USA) che, unitamente al Laboratorio Centrale di Genova, sviluppano i programmi di ricerca del piano scientifico 2015-2017.

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Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT) is a public research institute that adopts the organizational model of a private law foundation. IIT is overseen by Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca and Ministero dell'Economia e delle Finanze (the Italian Ministries of Education, Economy and Finance).  The Institute was set up according to Italian law 326/2003 with the objective of promoting excellence in basic and applied research andfostering Italy’s economic development. Construction of the Laboratories started in 2006 and finished in 2009.

IIT has an overall staff of about 1,440 people. The scientific staff covers about 85% of the total. Out of 45% of researchers coming from abroad 29% are foreigners coming from more than 50 countries and 16% are returned Italians. The scientific staff currently consists of approximately 60 Principal Investigators110 researchers and technologists350 post-docs and 500 PhD students and grant holders and 130 technicians. External funding has allowed the creation of more than 330 positions . The average age is 34 and the gender balance proportion  is 41% female against 59% male.

In 2015 IIT received 96 million euros in public funding (accounting for 80% of its budget) and obtained 22 million euros in external funding (accounting for 20% of its budget). External funding comes from 18 European Projects, other 17 national and international competitive projects and approximately 60 industrial projects.

So far IIT accounts for: about 6990 publications, more than 130 European grants and 11 ERC grants, more than 350 patents or patent applications12 up start-ups and as many  which are about to be launched. The Institute’s scientific activity has been further strengthened since 2009 with the establishment of 11 research nodes throughout Italy (Torino, Milano, Trento, Parma, Roma, Pisa, Napoli, Lecce, Ferrara) and abroad (MIT and Harvard University, USA), which, along with the Genoa-based Central Lab, implement the research programs included in the 2015-2017 Strategic Plan.